Overview of Quang Tri

Geographical location - economy
Quang Tri Province ranges from 16018 to 17010 N, 106032 to 107034 E. It borders Le Thuy district, Quang Binh province to the North; Phong Dien and A Luoi districts, Thua Thien Hue province to the South; the East sea to the East and the provinces of Savannakhet and Salavan, Lao PDR to the West.
As a transport hub located in the center of the country, Quang Tri has geographical and economic advantages. Quang Tri is also the first point of the East-West Economic Corridor connecting Laos - Thailand - Myanmar via Lao Bao international border gate to the ports in the Central such as: Cua Viet, Chan May, Da Nang, Vung Ang...
These advantages will help Quang Tri expand regional economic cooperation, international transport, trade development, services and tourism.
Quang Tri has favorable transportation conditions on road, railway and waterway. Quang Tri has many arterial roads such as National Highway 1A, Ho Chi Minh road (East and West branches), North-South railway running along the province, and National Highway 9 attached to Trans-Asia roads, which allows Quang Tri exchange economy with other provinces in the region and the whole country. Cua Viet Port is one of the seaports that can serve regional cargo and transshipment through Trans Asia. Not far from the center of Dong Ha city, there is Phu Bai airport - Thua Thien Hue (about 80 km) and Da Nang international airport (about 150 km).
Over the years, like other provinces in the Central region, Quang Tri has got the attention and incentives from the State. Therefore, the province has made new economic achievements. Lao Bao special economic and commercial zone has developed well. The infrastructure of Nam Dong Ha industrial park, Quan Ngang industrial park; tourist attractions such as Hien Luong, Cua Tung, Khe Sanh, Lao Bao... have been invested and gradually promoting their effectiveness. The transport infrastructure, electricity, water supply and drainage, post and telecommunications are constantly being expanded. Social sectors such as poverty reduction, health, education - training, culture - sports are focused on development.
The advantages of geographic - economic position and economic potentials have been giving Quang Tri a very basic foundation to be able to expand interaction, promote domestic economic cooperation, strengthen connection, integrate with other countries in the region and the world, and further speed up the socio-economic development of the province in the coming time.
Natural features
Topography
Due to the structure of Truong Son mountain, Quang Tri's terrain is lower from the West to the East and the Southeast. Quang Tri has four types of terrain: the high mountains in the West ranging from the top of Truong Son mountain to the hills; the midland and narrow plain running along the province; inland sandy areas and coastal areas. Due to the mountainous terrain on the west and the narrow width, the rivers and streams are both short and steep.
- High mountainous terrain. Ranging from the West from the Truong Son mountain to the hills, it occupies the largest area, with the height of 250-2000 m, and the slope of 20-300. The terrain is strongly cleaved, steep, eroded. The typical massif of mountains are Dong Voi Mep, Dong Sa Mui, Dong Chau, Dong Vang. Mountainous terrain can be developed for afforestation, perennial crops and cattle raising. However, most of the terrain is strongly divided, rivers, streams, and passes are steep, it is difficult to travel, construct of infrastructure such as transportation, electricity networks ... as well as live and produce. However, there is small potential for hydroelectricity.
- Low hilly and mountainous terrain is the transition from high mountainous terrain to plain terrain, running along the province. The height is from 50-250m; some places are over 500m. The hilly and low mountains (midland hilly and mountainous area) creates gentle, wavy bands with deep to medium separation. The Gio Linh - Cam Lo basalt block is approximately 100 - 250 m high, semi-plains, gently wavy, thick weathered shell. Vinh Linh basalt block is located close to the coast, with absolute height from 50-100m. The low mountainous and hilly terrain is suitable for growing industrial crops such as rubber, pepper, and perennial fruit trees.
- Plain: The relatively flat terrain is alluvial soil from the system of rivers, with absolute height from 25-30 m. These include Trieu Phong plain, alluvial deposits from the quite fertile Thach Han river. Hai Lang Delta and Ben Hai River Delta are relatively fertile. This is a key area for food production, especially rice production in districts of Hai Lang, Trieu Phong, Gio Linh, and Vinh Linh.
- Coast: Mainly sand dunes distributed along the coast. The terrain is relatively flat, favorable for the population distribution. Some areas have terrain divided into local basins that are easily flooded when there is heavy rain. Some areas are just dry sand dunes, which creates unfavorable condition for production and people's life.
In general, with diversified topography, divided into sub-regions and many different ecological regions, Quang Tri can develop comprehensively economic sectors, especially creating favorable sub-climates. for the diversification of crops and animals in agricultural, forestry and fishery production.
Climate
Quang Tri has tropical monsoon climate, with high temperature, abundant light, rain and moisture, high total temperate, which is the basic advantages for the agricultural and forestry development. However, Quang Tri is considered to have a rather harsh climate, influenced by the hot dry southwest wind that blows strongly from March to September, often causing drought. From October to February of the following year, it is influenced by northeast monsoons and rain, resulting in floods.
- Temperature. The annual average temperature ranges from 240-250C in the plain, 220-230C at altitudes above 500 m. The cold season has 3 months (12 and 1, 2 in the following year), the temperature drops low, the temperature in the coldest month drops below 220C in the plain, below 200C at an altitude of over 500 m. The hot season from May to August has an average high temperature of 280C, the hottest month from June and July, the maximum temperature can reach 400-420C. The difference in temperature between months is 70-90C. The heat is favorable for developing intensive farming and increasing crops in agricultural production.
- Rain: The average annual rainfall is about 2,200-2,500 mm. Rainy days range from 154-190 days per year. The rain in Quang Tri fluctuates strongly according to seasons and years. Over 70% of the rainfall is in September, October and November. There are years whose rainfall in a month in the rainy season accounts for approximately 65% ​​of the average rainfall in many years. The dry season is usually from December to July next year, the driest in July. This is the period of southwest wind. The rain unstability greatly affects agricultural, forestry and fishery production, as well as the infrastructure construction... In the rainy season, heavy rainfall in a short time often causes floods; In the summer, the little rainfall often causes water shortage and drought.
- Humidity. Quang Tri has relative humidity, an average of about 83-88% annually. The humidity also differs between the East and West Truong Son over time. April has the lowest humidity, the lowest sometimes drops to 22%. In the rainy season, the average relative humidity is normally over 85%, sometimes up to 88-90%.
- Sunshine: Quang Tri has quite a high number of sunny hours, averaging 5-6 hours/day. There is a clear differentiation over time and space: the East has a total of 1,910 hours of sunshine, the West only reaches 1,840 hours. May, June, July, and August usually reach over 200 sunny hours. A lot of sunshine is a very favorable condition for photosynthesis and increases the biological productivity of plants. However, prolonged sunshine and high temperatures lead to droughts, affecting production and people's life.
-  Wind. Quang Tri province is influenced by two main wind directions, namely southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon. In particular, the dry and hot southwest wind in Quang Tri is a very typical phenomenon, considered to be the most intense in our country, and blowing about 45 days in a year. During hot dry southwest winds, the temperature can reach 400 - 420C. The dry and hot southwest wind has a greatly bad impact on socio-economic activities, especially agricultural production.
- Typhoon and tropical depression: Quang Tri is located in an area affected by typhoons. The hurricane season is usually on September and October. Typhoons have strong winds accompanied by heavy rains, creating flash floods that seriously affects agricultural production and people's life.
In general, the natural conditions of Quang Tri have quite basic advantages: due to the diverse differentiation of topographic elevations, the sub-climatic zones are suitable for the diverse agriculture development. This gives a competitive advantage in the development of commodity agriculture. The temperate sub-region of Truong Son peak is a precious resource that brings attraction to the development of services and tourism, creating a cool space for sightseeing and relaxation, especially during the hot summer in the North Central region. This is the unique characteristics of Quang Tri's climate.

In addition to the basic favorable factors, the climate of Quang Tri as well as the central provinces are quite harsh: droughts are often in dry season and floods are in rainy season. Therefore, there is a great need of attention for overcoming natural disasters, constructing irrigation works, planting watershed forests to keep water against floods in order to stabilize production and life.
Hydrology
Quang Tri has rather dense rivers, the average density of 0.8-1 km/km2. Due to the narrow width and high mountains in the west, the rivers of Quang Tri are short and steep. The whole province has 12 large and small rivers, forming 03 main rivers: Ben Hai River, Thach Han River and O Lau River (My Chanh).
- Ben Hai river: Rooted from the Chau cave with a height of 1,257 m, a length of 65 km. The average annual discharge is 43.4 m3/s. The catchment area is about 809 km2 wide. Ben Hai River flows into the sea at Cua Tung.
- Thach Han River: with a length of 155 km, largest basin area of ​​2,660 km2. The main branch of the river is Thach Han, which originates from the great mountains of Dong Sa Mui, Voi Map Cave (Rao Quan branch) and Ba Le cave, Dang cave (Dakrong branch). Thach Han River flows into the sea at Cua Viet.
- O Lau river (My Chanh river) is combined by two main river branches, O Lau in the South and My Chanh River in the North. The catchment area of ​​the two river branches is about 900 km2 and the length is 65 km. The river flows into Tam Giang lagoon in Thua Thien Hue province.
In addition, Quang Tri borders Laos to the West, there are a number of tributaries flowing in the west of the Mekong river. The typical tributaries are the Se Bon River, the Lao Bao - A Dot border gate, the Se Pang River, the Cu Bai border post, Huong Lap (Huong Hoa).
- Stream: Distributed densely in the upstream region. Stream valleys are mostly very narrow, with steep slopes creating many hundreds of meters high waterfall and complicated hierarchy. In general, rivers and streams of Quang Tri are distributed evenly, favorable hydrological conditions provide a plentiful source of water for production and life, and has hydropower potential that allows the construction of hidro power plants with small and medium capacity.
The tidal regime on the coastal strip of Quang Tri has an irregular semi-diurnal regime, nearly a quarter of days has twice of high tide, twice of low tide. The tidal peak is relatively high from August to December and lower from January to July. The maximum monthly high tide amplitude is not large, ranging from 59 - 116 cm. The maximum tide amplitude is also not much different from the above value. The tidal magnitude during high tide can reach 2.5m.
Natural resources
1. Land resources
According to the statistics of Quang Tri province in 2008, the total natural area of ​​the province is 474,699.11 ha. Types of land divided by use purposes include:
1.1. Agricultural land. is 301,993.75 ha, accounting for 63.62% of the total natural land. Average agricultural land is 4,770 m2/person. Most of agricultural land is for annual crops with ​​50,950.17 ha, accounting for 64.04% of agricultural production land (of which rice land is 29,643.08 ha, other annual crop land is 21,177.78 ha, grass land for breeding is 129.31 ha). Land for perennial crops is 28,606.69 ha, accounting for 35.96% of the area of ​​agricultural production, mainly growing rubber, coffee, pepper, fruit trees ...
- Forest land with forests: is 219,638.85 ha, accounting for 72.73% of natural land, of which production forest land is 101,631.02 ha, protection forest 62,664.45 ha, special-use forest 55,343.38 ha.
1.2. Non-agricultural land: 41,421.31 ha, accounting for 8.73% of the total natural land area, including:
- Residential land: ​​7,129.18 ha, accounting for 17.2% of non-agricultural land, including 1,516.67 ha urban areas, 5,612.51 ha rural areas.
- Specialized land: 14,836.01 ha, accounting for 35.82% of non-agricultural land, including 241.68 ha for offices, public works; 1375.98 ha for security and defense; 767.23 ha for non-agricultural production and business; 12,082.45 ha for public purposes (traffic, irrigation ...).
- Land of religion and beliefs: ​​368.37 ha.
- Graveyard land: 3,921.34 ha.
- Land for rivers, streams and specialized water surface: 15,052,29 ha.
- Other non-agricultural land: 114.12 ha.
1.3. Unused land: 131,284.05 ha, accounting for 27.66% of the total natural land, of which:
- Unused flat land: 12,725,25 ha, can be exploited for other agricultural and non-agricultural production purposes.
- Unused hilly and mountainous land: 117,782.15 ha. This is a great land resouce for reclamation of agriculture, forestry expansion and economic and social fields.
- Rocky Mountains without trees: 776.65 ha.
Although the ​​unused land is still large, it is mostly sand dunes, salty acidic soil, strongly divided hills and mountains with thin thick layers. Many areas are clumped with laterite, scattered and not concentrated. There are areas having unexplored landmines and mines. Therefore, in order for unused land to be renovated, exploited and put into use in economic sectors, it is necessary to have a large investment of capital and technology, irrigation, land mine clearance ...
2. Forest resources and vegetation
In 2009, the province had 220,797 ha of forested land with a total timber volume of about 11 million m3. Quang Tri forest has about 1,053 types of plants belonging to 528 genera, 130 families, including 175 species of timber. Forest animals are also quite rich and diverse. Currently, there are about 67 species of mammals, 193 species of birds and 64 species of reptile amphibians (belonging to 17 families, 3 orders) living in Quang Tri forest. Due to the war heavy destruction and the exploitation of forests for slash-and-burn cultivation for many years, especially in some destroyed by chemical toxins forest areas, it is difficult to restore. Therefore, the natural forest ecosystem is degraded, natural forest reserve is reduced, forest quality is poor. Effective measures are needed to strengthen the management, protection and restoration of natural forests.
Plantations of all kinds have an area of ​​85,820 ha. In general, planted forests have good quality and average growth rate. Production forests mainly include Acacia and Acacia mangium grown in concentration with an intensive farming factor, so the economic efficiency is quite high. New forest trees are palnted in production forests. Some indigenous trees such as chrysanthemum, black star, and black star have been planted in protection forests. The ​​pine resin forest are is about 25,000 ha, the output of exploiting pine resin was 1,998 tons in 2010.
3. Marine Resources
Quang Tri has a coastline of 75 km with two important creeks, Cua Viet and Cua Tung. Exclusive economic marine territory of over 8,400 km2. Quang Tri has large fishing grounds, abundant seafood with high economic value such as lobster, cuttlefish, crab, sea cucumber, algae and some rare fish and coral. The seafood reserve is about 60,000 tons. The annual exploiting capacity is about 17,000 tons. The area of ​​the alluvial ground along the river is over 4,000 ha. Especially, the coastal area has about 1,000 ha of saline water surface and areas. The sandy soil can be converted to develop aquaculture of all kinds.
Con Co Island is 28 nautical miles offshore from the mainland, which has an important economic and defense position. A fishing port and Con Co fishing logistic service area have been currently built to serve ships in the province and other province in the region. The coast has a number of airtight bay that are good for port development, construction of ship factory and anchorage areas for ships such as Cua Viet and Cua Tung. Along Quang Tri coast, there are many beautiful beaches, landscapes, and revolutionary historical relics that can be put into tourism exploitation such as Cua Viet, Cua Tung, My Thuy, Trieu Lang, Vinh Moc tunnels…
Not far from the coast about 100 - 120 km, there is a source of high quality methane gas with reserves of 60-100 billion m3. The mine area is located near Con Co island, if this gas source is exploited and transferred to the mainland, Quang Tri province is the nearest location and creates possibilities for processing industries from gas materials and new technological materials.
With the potential of diverse marine and island resources, Quang Tri has advantages to promote integrated development of marine economy such as fishing and aquaculture; fishing logistics; sea ​​freight and shipping ports; sea ​​and island eco-tourism. On the basis of the harmonious development of marine economic sectors in close association with the general development orientation of the region and the whole country, linking with the development of the East-West economic corridor in order to effectively exploit sea and island.
4. Water Resources
In the province, there are 03 main rivers flowing into the sea: Ben Hai, Thach Han and O Lau. The widespread distribution of these rivers is the main source of surface water for production and daily life. These rivers all have a large volume of water in the rainy season. During the low rainy years, tributaries and small streams often dry up, causing drought.
Groundwater in sediments and weathering develop low mountain terrain along rivers. This is a quite important source of water for production and daily life. The water in the red soil weathered from basalt has good quality according to the chemical criteria ... This water source is very valuable to people in mountainous areas. The current exploitation method is mainly household-scale dug wells with low flow.
5. Mineral resources
The mineral resources of Quang Tri province are quite plentiful and diverse, especially minerals used as raw materials for cement production and construction materials. This is a condition for the province to strongly develop cement and building materials industries.
According to existing documents, there are 130 mines and mineral resources in Quang Tri province, of which 86 mines of construction materials and raw materials for cement production with main types such as limestone, clay and additives (such as basalt, iron ore), brick clay, pebble sand, glass sand, kaolin ... There are other mines of gold, titanium, peat ...
- Cement limestone. With a total reserve of over 3 billion tons, mainly in mines in: Tan Lam, Cam Thanh (Cam Lo), Ta Rang, Huong Lap (Huong Hoa); cement clay in Cam Tuyen, Ta Rang, other cement additives in Cua, Tay Gio Linh ...
- Stone for construction and paving. The whole province has 10 mines of construction stone of about 500 million m3; mainly distributed along Highway 9 and Ho Chi Minh road to the West, with quite favorable traffic conditions. The paving stone is at 4 locations: Chan Van granite, Khe Ngai marble, Dakrong granodiorite and Con Tien gabro.
- Clay for bricks. There are 18 points and mines with reserves of about 82 million m3, distributed in many places but mainly in Vinh Linh, Gio Linh, Cam Lo, Trieu Phong, Hai Lang.
- Sand, pebbles and gravel for construction. There are 16 mines and points with the forecast reserve of about 3.9 million m3, mainly in the upstream part of the river, and areas with convenient traffic for exploitation.
- Glass sand. The reserve is forecast at about 125 million m3, of good quality, distributed in Gio Linh, Trieu Phong, Hai Lang but mainly in Cua Viet area; capable of processing silicate, producing glass and building glass.
- Kaolin: 03 points of kaolin, namely Ta Long, A Pey (Dak Rong) and La Vang (Hai Lang) have been found which are of fairly good quality, are continuing to explore and test to put into operation.
- Peat: Mainly distributed in Hai Lang and Gio Linh with a total reserve of nearly 400 thousand tons, be able to be exploited as raw materials for production of microbiological fertilizers with a rather large volume.
- Titanium: Distributed along the coast but mainly in Vinh Linh, Gio Linh, Hai Lang, with reserves of over 500,000 tons, can be exploited with a volume of about 10-20 thousand tons/year for processing and export
- Mineral water: Distributed in Cam Lo, Dakrong , allowing the development of mineral water production industry, development of resort services and medical treatment.
- Gold: Distributed in Vinh O (Vinh Linh), Ta Long, A Vao (Dakrong) with reserves of about 20 tons, of which the A Vao gold mine has been studied to have industrial exploitation.
Most of the mineral resources have not been investigated and explored in detail. It is necessary to focus on implementation in the coming time to have a base for investment attraction, mining organization to meet the requirements of economic development.
6. Tourist Resources
Quang Tri has a lot of natural and humanistic tourism potentials, which are widely distributed in all areas of the province and close to main traffic axes. So it is very convenient for exploitation. In particular, Quang Tri has a system of revolutionary war relics associated with the nation's great resistance war, including world-famous landmarks such as Quang Tri ancient citadel, Vinh Moc tunnels, Hien Luong, Con Tien, Doc Mieu, Ho Chi Minh trail, Khe Sanh, Lang Vay, Truong Son martyrs' cemetery... Quang Tri is also the most vivid museum of revolutionary war relics, which is the basis for creating unique nostalgic tourism products. Quang Tri has a long coastline with beautiful, pristine landscapes with famous beaches such as Cua Tung, Cua Viet, My Thuy, Trieu Lang, Con Co ... to develop marine ecotourism. Quang Tri has a bridgehead position on the East-West economic corridor, the connection point between East-West tourism products, Central Heritage Road and Legendary Road. In addition, Quang Tri also has primeval forests, hot springs in Dakrong, Rao Quan - Khe Sanh lake area ... allowing development of ecotourism; has the potential to develop ethnic culture research tourism such as the Van Kieu, Pa Co ethnic festivals, the traditional revolutionary festivals; spiritual research tourism such as La Vang palate ceremony ... Tourism potential allows Quang Tri to develop tourism into an important economic sector of the province in the coming period.
Population and human resources
1. The average population of Quang Tri was 601,672 people in 2010. The whole province has 136,743 households, around 4.4 people/household. The province has the urban population of 170,073 people, accounting for 28.31%. The natural population growth rate was down to 1.05% in 2007 and 1.12% in 2010; There was little increase in mechanical population. The average growth of population by 5,000-6,000 people annually.
In the population structure by gender, female accounts for 50.3%, male accounts for 49.7%. The age from 0-59 years old accounts for about 90.9% showing the young population structure. The population under 15 years old accounts for 37.9% which is the abundant labor force of the province.
The province's population density is 126.7 people/km2, which is low compared to other provinces and cities in the country. The population is unevenly distributed among regions, mainly distributed in cities, towns and delta districts such as Quang Tri town 308 people/km2, Dong Ha town 1,157 people/km2, while Dakrong district has only 29 people/km2, Huong Hoa 64 people/km2. The uneven population distribution between regions has a significantly negative impact on the construction of traffic infrastructure, electricity, water, irrigation, schools, medical stations ... serving production and people in mountainous, divided, and sparsely populated regions.
2. Human resources. In 2010, the whole province had 346,287 thousand people of working age, accounting for about 57.5% of the population. The number of people at working age increased by an average of 3,000-4,000 people per year. The trained and skilled labor force is still limited. The number of people with elementary qualifications, vocational certificates or higher accounts for 26% (of which colleges, universities or higher education make up 4.4%; professional high school 5.9%; technical workers with degree 1.5%, technical workers without degree to 8.3%, elementary/vocational certificates 2.9%). The rest are mostly non-technical workers, accounting for 74%. The majority of workers work in agriculture, forestry and fishery (in 2010, 55%). Workers in the industry - construction and service sectors tend to account for an increasing proportion in the social labor structure.
3. Cultural traditions. Quang Tri people have a tradition of hardworking spirit for study; creativity in production and sympathy in life, especially in case of natural disasters, epidemics, and poverty. Experiencing the fierce wars, Quang Tri people remain indomitable, steadfastly overcoming difficulties. Quang Tri is also a famous historical land, with a tradition of patriotism and revolution, producing outstanding people for the country, typically General Secretary Le Duan. Through the period of development, Quang Tri has had many celebrities with noble titles. The ethnic community in Quang Tri province includes 3 main groups: Kinh, Van Kieu and Pa Co. The ethnic minorities accounts for about 9% of the total population. Each ethnic group has a long history and a rich and unique cultural tradition, especially folk culture. Van Kieu and Pa Co groups live mainly in the western mountainous districts of the province such as Huong Hoa and Dakrong. All ethnic groups in Quang Tri province have united and steadfastly fought in the two wars of resistance against the French and the US, making great contributions to the nation's victory. Today they are joining together to help each other in production, and homeland construction.
In general, Quang Tri province's population and human resources are plentiful. The province also has a diverse culture and precious traditions. However, the population and labor still has limitations and shortcomings such as: population is not evenly distributed in the territory; the lowest educational attainment level is in remote and isolated areas; trained and skilled labours are limited, lack of a workforce of high quality… Therefore, raising people's knowledge, developing human resources, promoting internal human resources are urgent tasks at the moment as well as a long-term strategy of the province to meet the requirements of socio-economic development and international integration.
 
     
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